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December 2017

Concerns for ozone recovery

Qing Liang et. al.

Natural methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) emissions are also important long-lived sources of atmospheric reactive halogen. Rising concentrations of very-short-lived substances (VSLSs) with atmospheric lifetimes of less than half a year may also contribute to future stratospheric ozone depletion. A greater concern for ozone layer recovery is incomplete compliance with the Montreal Protocol, which will impact stratospheric ozone for many decades, as well as rising natural emissions as a result of climate change.

Science

The most accurate climate change models predict the most alarming consequences, study finds

By Chris Mooney

The climate change simulations that best capture current planetary conditions are also the ones that predict the most dire levels of human-driven warming, according to a statistical study released in the journal Nature Wednesday.

 

Washington Post

Short-lived climate pollutant mitigation and the Sustainable Development Goals

Drew Shindell et. al.

The post-2015 development agenda is dominated by a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that arose from the 2012 Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. Measures to mitigate emissions of short-lived climate pollutants are an example of actions that contribute to multiple outcomes relevant to development. This Perspective highlights the interlinkages between these pollutants and the SDGs, and shows that implementing emissions reduction measures can contribute to achieving many of the SDGs.

Nature Climate Change

Mechanism of SOA formation determines magnitude of radiative effects

Jialei Zhu, Joyce E. Penner, Guangxing Lin, Cheng Zhou, Li Xu, and Bingliang Zhuang

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) forms via a variety of processes and plays a key role in climate change and air quality. Recent measurements indicate that most SOA exists as an internal mixture with other aerosols. This study examines the radiative effect of using a mixing state for SOA that depends on the process of formation, based on an explicit mechanism for the chemical production of SOA.

 

PNAS

Reassessing emotion in climate change communication

Daniel A. Chapman at. al.

Debate over effective climate change communication must be grounded in rigorous affective science. Rather than treating emotions as simple levers to be pulled to promote desired outcomes, emotions should be viewed as one integral component of a cognitive feedback system guiding responses to challenging decision-making problems.

 

Nature Climate Change

Greenhouse gas emission curves for advanced biofuel supply chains

Vassilis Daioglou et. al.

Most climate change mitigation scenarios that are consistent with the 1.5–2 °C target rely on a large-scale contribution from biomass, including advanced (second-generation) biofuels. However, land-based biofuel production has been associated with substantial land-use change emissions.

 

Nature Climate Change

Mapping synergies and trade-offs between energy and the Sustainable Development Goals

Francesco Fuso Nerini et. al.

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development—including 17 interconnected Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets—is a global plan of action for people, planet and prosperity. SDG7 calls for action to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. Here we characterize synergies and trade-offs between efforts to achieve SDG7 and delivery of the 2030 Agenda as a whole.

 

Nature Energy

The future of plastics recycling

Jeannette M. Garcia and Megan L. Robertson

The environmental consequences of plastic solid waste are visible in the ever-increasing levels of global plastic pollution both on land and in the oceans. But although there are important economic and environmental incentives for plastics recycling, end-of-life treatment options for plastic solid waste are in practice quite limited. Recent research points the way toward chemical recycling methods with lower energy requirements, compatibilization of mixed plastic wastes to avoid the need for sorting, and expanding recycling technologies to traditionally nonrecyclable polymers.

 

Science

Chemists can help to solve the air-pollution health crisis

Learning more about how pollutants enter and damage the body would reduce disease and deaths, say Jos Lelieveld and Ulrich Pöschl.

 

Nature

NASA satellite tracks ozone pollution by monitoring its key ingredients

NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Ozone pollution near Earth’s surface is one of the main ingredients of summertime smog. It is also not directly measurable from space due to the abundance of ozone higher in the atmosphere, which obscures measurements of surface ozone

 

Science Daily

A record of ice sheet demise

Shaun A. Marcott & Jeremy D. Shakun

The Cordilleran ice sheet once covered nearly all of western Canada, from the Puget Lowland of Washington to the southern reaches of Alaska. Unlike the Laurentide ice sheet, which covered the relatively flat Canadian shield of eastern Canada, the Cordilleran ice sheet blanketed the high alpine peaks of the Canadian Rockies and Coast Ranges. Although relatively small, it was nonetheless important for shaping the landscape.

 

Science

Effectiveness of state climate and energy policies in reducing power-sector CO2 emissions

Geoff Martin & Eri Saikawa

States have historically been the primary drivers of climate change policy in the US, particularly with regard to emissions from power plants. States have implemented policies designed either to directly curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power plants, or to encourage energy efficiency and renewable energy growth.

 

Nature Climate Science

Why the Post-Paris Climate Challenge Is Even Harder Than We Thought

BY FRED PEARCE 

As international negotiators convene in Bonn, they must confront the stark conclusion of a new UN report: The national commitments under the Paris Agreement will not come close to providing the emissions reductions needed to avoid the most severe effects of climate change.

 

Yale 360



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